Looking in from the outside, it can be simple for one to so easily misinterpret or even blatantly disregard the history of another. This is because “history” is often viewed as an entirely independent factor of past – a past which is often unwanted for repetition in the future. Though history is taught as a lesson, it is extremely crucial to also realize that history plays a fundamental role when applied in trying to understand a person, country or pattern.
Over the past couple decades, Germany has become one of the role model developed countries of the world due to its thriving economy and relatively high standard of living for its residents. Present day Germany, in most parts, has developed rather quickly, boasting efficiency as well as maintaining priorities in sustainable transport, renewable energy and waste management. The easy access to resources via the internet is irrefutably impressive and effective in maintaining a booming economy. Need to catch a train but don’t have time to stop at the ticket station? Click! Done! Do you want food delivered to your door-step? Click! Done! Need to make an appointment with the doctor? Click! Done! For someone who doesn’t readily have these amenities available, this is seemingly remarkable.
Slow down for a minute though… The fact is, not all roads to such simplicities were so effortless. Germany had to forge its own path and its people made some hard choices, some which proved beneficial and others destructive in nature. On one excursion to the Dresden Panometer, the class of EM43, if they hadn’t already, would soon realize at the bare minimum what it took to become present day Germany. So let’s turn the clock back about 75 years ago to Dresden, Germany, 1945.
Dresden, February 15, 1945
Bright orange flames produce thick black smoke, giving off embers and ashes rising high into what is now a seemingly pitch black sky. The air, hardly breathable, is regrettably the only thing left to be taken away from the regular man and as far as the eyes can see, the once bustling city centre of Dresden, lay in rubbles after three long hellish days of bomb raids from the Allied Forces. Thousands of civilian lives were lost during the three-day airstrike, leaving thousands of others mourning the loss of their loved ones and quite some years of “cleaning” and rebuilding to restore the City of Dresden.
Dresden, was not a city for military defense at the time, but became targeted for bombing to allegedly disrupt communication among the Nazi Party, which was being ran by Adolf Hitler since 1933. Under Hitler’s Chancellorship, approximately 6 million Jews were killed and millions of other people, whom he deemed politically, religiously or racially “unfit” to live among the German population. These persons were often segregated and taken to extermination camps where they would face certain death at the hands of Hitler’s soldiers. This was a tremendously dark time for Germany, one in which being different was a crime and the mere thought of this invoked fear in the heart of millions of people who took refuge there. Hitler’s rule was ended at a great cost of the lives of German civilians in order to save the lives many more.
So, not everything can be taken for face value. Thereafter, Germany sought out progressiveness through economic growth, which not immediately but eventually welcomed diversity, literacy and now the concept of sustainability and environmental cohesiveness. The last factor, more than anything else, is probably what will make us or break us as a people! For years, mankind has struggled to accept diversity and individuality-history lesson #1. However, lesson #2 is ours for the taking, in deciding how our personal choices in the use of our natural resources will affect each other and our children! Each person, each ethnicity, each country has either chosen or needs to choose soon how to live so as to not lead to the demise of mankind through our destructive nature in the unwise and over exploitive use of our natural resources. Yadegar Asisi’s Panometer of Dresden 1945 is not just history. Under different circumstances it is provides a definite insight of mankind’s future should we not understand our weighty dependence on maintaining healthy environmental ecosystems!
Have you thought about the value of the waste you produce or the value of the things you so often throw away or discountenance? You probably have not! However, you see, in Germany, waste management is a multibillion-euro economy with an annual turnover of €70 billion. To put that in perspective, the annual turnover of Germany’s waste management sector is more than twice the €32 Billion 2020 federal budget of Africa’s biggest economy, Nigeria. More so, according to Germany’sFederal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), in 2018, there were over 11,000 waste management companies, which operated over 15,500 waste management (collection, recovery and recycling) facilities, employing over 270,000 people.
What is even more interesting is the fact that waste management in Germany is self-funded. At the moment, each German citizen pays about 18 cents pay day or (€ 50 annually) to have his/her wastes evacuated and appropriately managed. Perhaps more intriguing is the fact that waste management services are fully contracted to private companies. Private waste operators are paid by relevant regulating or municipal authorities from the fees paid by the users. From waste collection, transportation, sorting, recycling, treatment, dedicated men undertake disposal, and women employed and paid by contracted companies. Dresden, a city of about 500,000 inhabitants and the capital of Saxony Free State has a total of 3,580 bins and streets measuring approximately 1,773 km, which are cleaned regularly
To get a glimpse of the waste management system in the city, 21 fellows from ongoing 43rd UNEP/UNESCO/BMU International Postgraduate Course on Environmental Management at CIPSEM, Technical University (TU), Dresden, Germany set out on an excursion to three waste management-recycling facilities within Dresden City. The three sites were a residual waste treatment plant, a mineral recycling plan and an electronic recycling center. For each of the three sites, there were tons of things to learn, compare and admire. Admire, right, perhaps the enthusiasm, devotion and professionalism with which the workers approached their work, not just to put food on the table, but with clear understanding that the work they do is dignified and strategic to the health and success of their city.
Residual Treatment Plant
This facility located at Hammerweg, Dresden, is residual waste treatment plant that employs a method called “biological, mechanical treatment”. The process is so called because it employs biological methods to dry the wastes and then, sort them mechanically to remove inert- and metal fraction. The treatment facility is operated by Stadtreinigung Dresden GmbH, a private company.
The facility was commissioned in 2001 in response to changes proposed in the German Federal law which outlawed disposal of untreated residual wastes in landfills, especially if it has a high calorific value or a high methane production potential – methane is dangerous GHG. Before that law, Dresden, and indeed Germany, dumped residual wastes in open landfills. The open landfill in Dresden was closed in 2002 just like many other landfills across Germany had to shut down. To show how injurious to the environment landfilling is, eighteen years after closure, the landfill in Dresden still produces methane. However, the methane is efficiently collected through a network of installed systems and used for energy generation. Some landfills remain actively operational today in Germany but they are for the disposal of special wastes such as mineral wastes.
Stadtreinigung Dresden GmbH collects residual wastes from the entire City from residual bins strategically placed in homes and public places. People also bring their gardening waste to waste-depots located at the entrance of the plant. However, these (gardening) wastes go to another treatment plant to produce compost. The process of treatment is heralded by delivery of residual wastes transported to the facility by specially designed trucks. (In Germany, trucks used in waste delivery carry the special “A” sign). The trucks deliver the waste to the bunker inside the treatment plant after which a thorough cleaning of the vehicle, especially the wheels and compartments, follows. This is to reduce re-contamination.
The wastes are then transported by automated crane systems to the pre-shredding phase where wastes are cut into small pieces to increase surface area for biological action. The next step sees the pre-shredded wastes placed into drying boxes where they are left for some days for rotting to take place. Pumping of air to the wastes follows to take up any organic matter remaining. The wastes are then transported through sieves to separate them into various types and sizes. Furthermore magnetic and eddy current separation for metals and windsifters to get rid of the inert fraction. Mindful of the health of the community, the air is burned to eliminate the remaining organic matter and foul smell before it is released to the environment. Unbelievably, within the neighborhood, you would hardly notice that a waste treatment plant of this magnitude exists.
The facility produces RDF (refuse-derived-fuels) for incineration. The facility also makes extra money by sorting out metals from the residual wastes it receives from the public. These metallic wastes are sold to the metal recyclers in Germany. Other waste fractions from the mix are sold to different processors such as cement factories, lignite factories, and glass manufacturers… So, you see where Euros are coming from?
Apart from this plant, another plant operates in another part of the city that produces biogas from biowastes. The residues from that anaerobic digestion process (which results in biogas production) are of qualities too low to sell to private gardeners. Thus, instead, these residues from the process are sold to landscapers.
Mineral recycling plant
Nordmineral Recycling facility had its own intrigue! Oh, some still think gold, copper etc. are the only minerals! Well, not at all! Sand, ballast, asphalt, stones to mention but a few, are also minerals. Perhaps because Africa is blessed with many precious minerals, we hardly conceptualize that construction wastes could also be a source of minerals!
To be honest, Nordimineral Recycling facility did look like an active quarry. Huge heaps of sand, ballast, building blocks, bricks and others dotted the site. Minimal dust was produced inside of the plant from the giant blocks fed into the huge crusher by one of the caterpillars on site. The facility produces brick dusts of different sizes which are used in construction, landfilling and poultry houses. Large construction blocks are also made from the waste sands and ballast together with cement. These are used as security barriers and to shield riverbeds against floods. The sight of trucks that kept coming and leaving the facility emphasized the importance of the facility. In fact, Germany produces a significant amount of construction wastes. For instance, in 2015, it produced 209 million tons of wastes against 51 million tons of household wastes. This makes a good case therefore to have such a facility that recycles construction and demolition wastes.
Nordimineral Recycling facility was constructed in 1995 at a total cost of $7.5 million. It is operated by Nordimineral Recycling GmbH & Co. KG. The design capacity of the facility is one million tons of mineral wastes annually but currently operates at one-third of its installed capacity. To keep up with the set standards; the plant conducts a monthly testing of the chemical composition for the products coming out of the facility. The dust particles sizes are also closely monitored. The markets for its products are construction companies and Government agencies.
From the look of things, this is a very profitable and strategic sector. So, it begs the question, how does Africa manage her construction waste. Could it be a question of a billion euro loss?
Electrical and electronics recovery centre
Lebenshilfe Recycling Facility recycles electrical and electronics waste (e-wastes). In the past few years, e-wastes have grown into a serious environmental concern. What stands out of the facility is the fact that it employs disabled and mentally challenged workers. Thus, this social enterprise innovatively combines job creation/gainful employment, sustainable waste management and social integration. What a business model!
The workers are first trained on dismantling processes and personal protection before undertaking the task. You could not help but notice the very clean and well-organized surrounding of this facility. Its workers were fully kitted and the facility is fitted with special equipment that suck off mercury and other toxic gases produced during the dismantling process. Examples of e-waste processed by the facility include desktop computers, television sets (CRT, LCD, LED etc.), mobile phones, radios, CDs, fans, wires etc.
Dresden produces approximately 2,500 tonnes of electronics wastes out of which 2400 tonnes find their way to the facility. Collection of e-waste is at no cost to the members of the public – members of the public are free to bring their e-waste to the facility. There are also dedicated collection outlets at strategic locations across the city. Wastes collected from different locations within the city are then transported to the facility.
In conclusion, here are some of the other lessons during the trips:
Citizenry awareness and attitude to wastes is crucial in developing efficient waste management
That waste management sector is a long value chain that creates thousands of opportunities in terms of job, and income both for residents and Government
Waste separation is core to achieving efficient municipal waste management
Developing countries have huge (and largely untapped) potential to create new value-adding, employment and income opportunities in the waste management sector
Unregulated landfilling is a very expensive waste disposal method which leads to loss of economically valuable materials, loss of aesthetic value of land and release of GHGs
Construction wastes can be recycled and reused
The experience at these facilities begs the question, how does Africa/Asia or even the Caribbean manage their waste? Should waste be continuously wasted?
by Mr. Idowu Kunlere (Nigeria) and Mr. Peter Wakahora (Kenya)
Prof. Dr. Hans Müller-Steinhagen, Rector of TU Dresden
The potential impact CIPSEM courses can have was highlighted in a video message by Mr. Erik Grigoryan, Minister for the Environment in Armenia and CIPSEM alumnus (30th UNEP/UNESCO/BMU International Postgraduate Course on Environmental Management for Developing Countries in 2007). He congratulated his follow-up peers and encouraged them to implement the gained knowledge confidently.
This years “Best Final Paper Awards” for this course were given to:
Ms. Oleksandra Lohunova (Ukraine), for “Land use planning aspects regarding tailings management facilities safety”
Ms. Urvana Menon (India), for “Towards effective conservation of transboundary ecosystems – the case of Indo-Bhutan conservation region”
Mr. Marcio Alvarenga Junior (Brazil), for “Payment for ecosystem services: an alternative for the Brazilian Amazon”
Additionally, warm words were also provided by representatives of the course itself. Hence, Ms. Saba Raffay (Pakistan) and Mr. Ireneo Jr. Silverio Piong (Philippines) summarized the time at CIPSEM in general, but each also with a very personal and also funny note respectively.
Did you know that the first bicycle was conceptualized in Germany?
A German baron named Karl von Drais, a civil servant to the Grand Duke of Baden in Germany, made the first major development when he created a steerable, two-wheeled contraption in 1817 and patented this design in 1818. Known by many names, including the “velocipede,” “hobby-horse,” “draisine” and “running machine (German: Laufmaschine)”, it is this early edition that has made Drais widely acknowledged as the father of the bicycle.
And did you know that cycling about 12 mph (19 kph) means a 150-pound (68 kg) rider may burn more than 540 calories in an hour? Cycling is one of the best ways to burn hundred of calories during a workout.
Inspired already? FYI, CIPSEM has nine (9) bicycles available for the participants. Roman is the man to approach for the bicycle units.
Ready to take advantage of the bikes? Bicycling is enjoyable when you share the experience, the view, (and the snacks) with like-minded fellows. So look for those cool and willing-to-be-fit people, grab the bikes and head to the Elbe river as first destination. There are many reasons why Elbe river is an excellent biking place. The best view while having picnic is in Loschwitz because it is far from the usual picnic places and it feels like you own the universe there. Prof. Schanze also recommended the place, so it is worth checking out.
There are also various routes, both short ways and far-reaching, in going to that other side of the river. But the best one is to cross the Palais Grosser Garten from CIPSEM heading down to Kaethe-Kollwitz-Ufer, pass the Flea Market at the Albert Bridge, and cross the Elbe via Carola Bridge.
Palais Grosser Garten
sunset at Carola Bridge
Good luck and Schönes Wochenende!
PS: don’t miss the Sunset at Carola Bridge and the dusky view of the Terrassenufer.
“This fire will return. It will make a large circle and return to devour us”
a citizen, Germany, 1938
Light, red, grey, black.
Again red, grey, black.
Grey and black.
Black and death.
World War II, Dresden, Germany, February 13-15, 1945
3900 tons of high-explosive and fire bombs destroyed over 90% of historic medieval city of Dresden. Thousands of victims disappeared in smoke under the influence of a temperature higher than 1000 °C. During the war, Dresden was a civilian city with no military significance. In the last weeks of the war, the city gave shelter to the thousands of refugees.
Before the war, the former capital of the Kingdom of Saxony was called the “Florence of the Elbe” because of its artistic and architectural wealth. Wars firstly destroy the culture and beauty inside the human beings, and then the next step is the destruction of the external beauty, culture, music, arts, souls. This is what happened in the world during the Second World War.
74 years after the war, the fellows of CIPSEM EM-42 had the opportunity to do a unique journey in the history, experience Dresden of February 1945. The 360° Panorama, created by the artist Yadegar Asisi, takes the visitors of Dresden Panometer back to the past, like a time machine. The day was full of emotions, full of voices, images from the war and we hardly could speak after the visit.
Which military objective justified the hell unleashed on Dresden? Why did they burn its people? If there was no good strategic reason for it, then not even the passage of time can make it right! It was moral bombing that left the humans in a moral dilemma. The questions it poses are as difficult as ever in a world in which civilians continue to suffer in the wars of their autocratic leaders. During the Second World war, some 55 million people dead, some six million Europeans of Jewish faith or background were murdered, a great number of cities in Europe and Germany not more than a desert of rubble. Many survivors remained traumatized, alone and full of fear.
“In its 360° circumference, Yadegar Asisi’s Dresden 1945 Panorama shows a comprehensive circular representation taking account of the many aspects, fates and stories of the bombing raids and extending well beyond the ruined horizon. Yadegar Asisi has created a parabolic work, exemplary for mankind’s history of violence.” (Dr. Gorch Pieken, Scientific Director and Scientific Head of the German Armed Forces’ Museum of Military History in Dresden).
The visit to the Panometer and the participation in Dresden Human Chain were important for all of us, to learn the other side of the history. We would like to express our gratitude to the organizers and to our Professor of German, Dr. Hendrik Breuls, for this opportunity.
In the end of our visit to Dresden Panometer, I remember the words of Antoine de Saint-Exupery: “War is not an adventure. It is a disease. It is like typhus.” Are we cured from the war disease?
Most likely, this morning some of us went to the bathroom, brushed our teeth, took a bath, and did our things in the toilet, maybe followed by washing the dishes that have been sitting on the sink since last night dinner. Little did we know, the water (or better we call it wastewater) that we used is flushed and drained to a collection pipe. In the case of EM-41 class, our wastewater is collected by sewer pipes in Dresden which has a total length of 1700 km with diameter of up to 2 meters.
These pipes are laying under the roads of Dresden and deliver our wastewater to a specific plant in Kaditz, an area northwest of Dresden. Occupying an area as large as 25 football fields, the plant was constructed in 1910 to treat the wastewater produced by Dresden’s population. Currently, everyday approximately 120.000 m3 of wastewater coming from 700.000 people is reaching the treatment plant. Since Dresden’s wastewater system applies a combined system, the incoming wastewater is collected together with rainwater and treated together in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).
To give you some illustration about the smell that we inhaled that afternoon, here is a picture of raw wastewater which just arrived in the WWTP; a dark-brown water.
Dirty, hence the dark color. Full of organic materials, which could lead to oxygen depletion in the aquatic ecosystems. Full of microorganisms, which some are harmful to humans, and of course smelly. And these are the shades of brownish colors of the same wastewater during the treatment processes:
More or less 24 hours later, we will receive this not-even-close-to brown water, which is the treated water from the WWTP.
Almost like clear water, it is still not safe for drinking, but is now safe to be discharged into receiving water bodies, in this case the famous Elbe River. With only 5 mg/l of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), and 41 mg/l of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), NH4-N of 0,7 mg/l, N total of ±13 mg/l, and P Total of 1 mg/l, this water won’t be a harm to humans and neither to the environment once it is discharged into the river.
How could the wastewater be turned into clear water? The answer is because of several physical, biological, and chemical processes that were taking place in the plant. At first, the wastewater was treated with physical and mechanical treatment with bar screens and grit chamber to remove the trash and to remove sand subsequently from the wastewater. The water then underwent a sedimentation process in which its floating and settle-able solids sink to the bottom of the tank. Afterwards, the water was transported to aeration tanks. In these tanks, air bubbles were introduced to the water to be used by the microorganisms which “eat” the organics. The water then again settled in secondary sedimentation tanks, from which it can then be safely discharged to receiving water bodies.
The sludge coming from the primary and secondary sedimentation tanks was also treated in a series of sludge treatment units. Unfortunately, we did not have the chance to visit all the units, but we could see from afar the two giant egg-shaped anaerobic digestion tanks.
We had fun during the visit, especially since the weather was rather nice today. And since 81% of the energy used is produced by the plant (mainly from anaerobic sludge treatment units and small amount produced by solar systems), we proudly took a picture in between the solar panel systems.
by Vika Ekalestari (Indonesia)
special credit to Tamara Karp (CIPSEM) for the title idea 😉
In Saxony waste management involves many stakeholders (including private, public and PPP`s) and has a very interesting social aim. Led by Dr. Dietmar Lohmann, we had two days of excursions (January 31st and February 1st) to many waste management facilities.
It was very interesting to know more about the German management model, in which consumers and producers are economically responsible for waste management. The inclusion of handicapped people in waste business was nice and surprising, becoming definitely a role model to be analyzed and implemented in developing countries.
We had the opportunity to see new technologies for bio-waste treatment, like the quick fermentation chambers at the composting facility. Although it is important to mention that some other processes at this facility, like compost maturation and marketing, surely can be improved.
In developing countries may be difficult to find waste to energy projects, but here in Germany we had the chance to visit a landfill-gas utilization project, in which biogas was transformed into energy for the grid.
Also we were impressed by the willingness of Germans for buying recycled products, as we saw the success of PAKA, a cardboard recycling company with more than 100 years of history. We have to highlight the way they market their products and find specific and lucrative niches.
These excursions were a wonderful experience for us, but also a great chance to have nice moments with our fellows.
by Gabriela de Jesús Fernández Tay (Cuba) & Eduardo Esteves (Ecuador)